영월콜걸✡예약▧ 영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월송도 마사지›↼【영월안마방 사까시】↥영월안마방 골뱅이☢영월광교 마사지◊영월삼산동 안마방☋영월셀룰라이트 마사지╇영월안마방 초보

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

진주출장샵
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

영월콜걸╮24시출장샵⇙영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월광교 마사지›♦【영월안마방 시간제】┾영월마사지황형┓영월부산역 모텔 추천◐영월사상 출장╪영월평택 모텔 가격☞영월안마방 얼마

The governments of more than 190 nations 울진얼굴 경락 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

영월콜걸↼예약금없는출장샵↞영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월출장녀›⇔【영월소라넷 안마방】╆영월시흥 안마방⇋영월남성 마사지☭영월눈 마사지 기계◘영월진주 가격✯영월안마방 몰카 torrent

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

영월콜걸╏24시출장샵⇥영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월아내 마사지›◘【영월검단사거리 안마방】▒영월마사지 자격증 종류☂영월연예인 마사지▒영월오일 전신 마사지☯영월구로 마사지♩영월임파선 마사지

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 온라인카지노 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

영월콜걸⇡예약금없는출장샵▶영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월안마방 노콘›○【영월태국 마사지 가격】⇥영월태국 마사지━영월동서울 안마방◐영월야탑 마사지 후기⇖영월부평 마사지 샵⇚영월강북 안마방

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 음성마닐라 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

영월콜걸♠24시출장샵タ영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월대구 모텔 추천›◇【영월일본 마사지 야동】♟영월갑상선 마사지♐영월영등포역 안마방↘영월전주 여관♚영월박중현 안마방▌영월안마방 실장

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 온라인카지노 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

영월콜걸영월창원 안마방 후기

  • 거창모텔 tumblr
  • 영월베트남 마사지 야동
  • 영월콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    영월콜걸✡예약☑영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월항문 마사지›♘【영월마사지 1인샵】❀영월용현동 마사지☏영월국 안마방メ영월섹스 마사지♮영월어깨 마사지➚영월여수 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 전주아줌마 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 창원출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
    충청남도출장소이스 대전출장샵 안산분당 마사지 추천
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 진주출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    영월콜걸▶출장부르는법↝영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월안마방 분수›♀ 【영월안마방 유출】▒영월연예인 안마방╓영월안마방 ㅅㅅ╈영월상록수 안마방◊영월김해 마사지★영월클럭 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 평택인도 뉴델리 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    영월콜걸┕출장부르는법✕영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월상무지구 안마방›웃【영월대딸 마사지】ハ영월독산동 마사지┭영월모텔 여자¤영월갓비비 마사지マ영월구의동 안마방➸영월여의도 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    전주전주 모텔 추천
    보령동해 안마방 제주출장안마 음성근육통 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    영월콜걸↹출장부르는법ψ영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월노량진 마사지›↟【영월안마방 사정】♨영월방이동 마사지✥영월안마방 일베▌영월클럭 마사지↘영월다방 모텔⊥영월금천구 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    영월콜걸┩예약╪영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월안마방 떡›▣【영월서산시 안마방】♦영월동대구역 여관↭영월마사지 1위 작품╜영월원룸 출장▨영월삼계 안마방♙영월안마방 가는법

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 진주출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 계룡유성 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    영월콜걸┲24시출장샵♂영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월안마방 역립›♦【영월감성마사지 뜻】☢영월경성대 마사지↾영월의정부 마사지✍영월왕십리 안마방メ영월송우리 안마방╝영월이태원 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    영월콜걸◥24시출장샵→영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월강남 안마방 후기›♥【영월서울 마사지】♐영월aktkwl↙영월fc2 한국 마사지➵영월안마방 밥┰영월영통 안마방☁영월마사지 크림

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 정읍가산 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 포항출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 원주대구 모텔 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that xlsx.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    영월콜걸☎24시출장샵⇈영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월출장전화번호›⇩【영월순천 중국 마사지】テ영월대전 커플 마사지♫영월주안 마사지➦영월안마방 커뮤니티↨영월안마방 torrentζ영월국 노

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 원주출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and webdesigners.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    영월콜걸✍24시출장샵☏영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월안마방 창업›╌【영월동대구역 근처 모텔】♦영월타이 마사지 가격↟영월낙성대 안마방▲영월유방 마사지♂영월안마방 g컵♦영월콧대 높이는 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    무안강서구 안마방
    원주출장안마 남원마사지 팁 천안출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    영월콜걸♥24시출장샵♚영월강남 안마방 위치‹영월안마방 야동›ヤ【영월강원 랜드 근처 마사지】╨영월진주 안마방┍영월당진 안마방△영월페니스 마사지⇚영월쥬니공주 안마방▥영월청도 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.영월콜걸영월fc2 마사지↚영월타이마사지 팁┬【영월출장 타이 마사지】영월안마방 커뮤니티⇩영월안마방 젤◥영월안마방 업소↖영월마사지↩목포출장안마24시출장샵영월서귀포 마사지♫영월역삼 마사지┓‹영월안마방 수위›영월강남 안마방 추천┸영월구로디지털단지 마사지┮영월천안역 여관◢영월레즈 안마방→영월콜걸서산보령 안마방영월종아리 마사지▥영월의정부 마사지☭<영월잇몸 마사지>영월후쿠오카 마사지➷영월사천 안마방◙영월겨드랑이 마사지┒영월창동 마사지♩영월사당 안마방↔영월마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ-<영월텀블러 안마방>영월아프리카tv 마사지↤영월대전 출장안마♟영월철원 안마방»영월부산 서면 모텔☁영월안중 모텔┲영월귀 마사지ト(영월모란 안마방)영월안마방 fc2◎영월폼롤러 마사지╝영월아산 안마방┪영월사당 마사지♝영월박중현 안마방♥영월클리토리스 마사지☺《영월신당동 안마방》영월수원 출장✔영월수원 태국 마사지↡영월출장최고시➳영월v라인 마사지⇗예약금없는출장샵동해애인대행예약금없는출장샵영월마사지 몰카♪영월강릉 조건녀➼《영월안마방 팁》영월아다 안마방⇣영월속초 마사지↪영월밀양 안마방╄영월출장마사지◘영월콜걸영월콜걸진주출장안마영월안마방 몰카 토렌트영월울산 안마방 추천영월운서역 안마방영월안마방 nf 뜻영월콜걸영월눈커지는 마사지-영월대구 모텔 아가씨テ『영월진주 안마방』영월전주 안마방 가격┌영월대구 마사지ノ영월송도 마사지⇞영월광명사거리 안마방✕부천고등학생 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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